In Ohio and in addition to other rights, a surviving spouse has a number of basic rights available to them in a probate estate. The purpose of these legislated rights is to attempt to assure surviving spouses are not impoverished or that they have resources for necessities on the death of their husband or wife. Our legal system has generally memorialized these rights in Ohio Revised Code Section 2106. The rights include but are not limited to the following which I have listed in no certain order. A spouse has a right to two automobiles of limited value that are not specifically listed in the Last Will and Testament. He or she has a right to live in their home (aka “the mansion house”) for up to a year if it is not transferred or bequeathed to them otherwise. They have the right to purchase property from the deceased spouse’s estate. He or she has a right to an “allowance for support.” This allowance depends on the money available in the estate and other factors. Additionally, the survivor receives preferential treatment on appointment as the fiduciary to their spouse’s estate. If the surviving spouse wishes to exercise any of their rights, they have 5 months after the appointment of an executor or administrator of an estate to do so. The decision to make is whether they would like to elect to take under the will or to take against the will (which means exercising the rights listed above). Depending on the estate and situation, it may behoove a widow or widower to elect against a will if they were not adequately provided for in the will. Now one reality to watch out for is a situation where the surviving spouse is completely cut out of an estate by the late spouse. Sometimes this is unintentional or intentional and almost always because the late spouse received bad counsel from whoever they held as advisors. Your advisor should be an attorney who can explain the positive and negative ramifications of an estate plan. There are many, many non-attorneys in Ohio doing a disservice to citizens by looking (and sounding) sophisticated regarding estate planning but lacking the professional competence to advise on such heavy matters.
Pre-Need planning is a wonderful gift to those you love. As a rule of thumb, a pre-need funeral contract refers to the purchase of funeral goods and services before a person passes away. Why would someone want to pre-plan?
The pre-arrangement allows the person to speak directly to the funeral director about his or her own funeral wishes and preferences. By having pre-planning the service, the individual is providing significant relief to surviving family members from having to make decisions during a time of tumult and grieving in addition to relieving the survivors from a financial burden. Additionally, there is a Medicaid planning benefit to planning as well. Persons who currently qualify for Medicaid assistance or who anticipate qualifying may pre-pay their funerals without impacting their Medicaid eligibility. As this is an exempt purchase. The drawback to pre-planning is that the person is tying up the money.
Now there are really two types of pre-need contract: a guaranteed price contract and a non-guaranteed. In a guaranteed price contract the funeral home guarantees the funeral goods and services the planning person selects at the amount of money stated in the agreement. Which means there will be no need for additional payment later.selected for the amount of money stated in the contract. This means that you or your estate will not be required to pay any additional cost for the guaranteed items. The “non guaranteed contract” treats the amount paid for planning as a deposit against the final costs which is determined at the time of the actual funeral services provided.
If the contract does not guarantee the prices charged, the price of the funeral will be determined at the time the services and merchandise are provided. Any amount you pre-pay will be considered as a deposit to be applied toward the purchase price.
Some good questions to ask (in addition to your wishes) during your pre-planning session are:
* Where will the pre-need funds be deposited until they are needed?
* Will I receive verification from the financial institution that the prepaid funds have been deposited in the trust account?
* If the funds are used to purchase an insurance policy, will I receive verification that the policy has been purchased?
* What is covered by the price guarantee?
* Is the pre-need contract irrevocable or revocable?
* If the contract is revocable, how can I cancel the contract?
I have had to handle funeral arrangements for family, friends and client and can tell you. It is a marvelous relief to know a plan was already in place for our loved one.E
I spent over 30 years analyzing and planning estates for my clients to minimize the bite of estate tax. The mechanisms were complex, not logical, and for many a burden. But in those days before tax reform, the family business, the family farm, and live savings were all exposed to state and federal estate tax that made such planning necessary to minimize their impact.
They’re gone – almost. The Ohio estate tax is gone and the federal filing threshold is $5.9M. But now, the most important tax issue is basis and capital gains tax for beneficiaries. Since property transfers to the next generation more often now in the form of an IRA, annuity, or some survivorship designation, it is important, if you want to preserve assets, to understand how each works and the income tax impact on beneficiaries.
You can do this planning yourself if you understand this, but most don’t. Don’t leave this to chance – come talk to us because the tax bite can still hurt.
I frequently have opportunity to view people, especially seniors and those taking care of seniors, in situations that are challenging them – financial, health, family situations, etc – and the way they respond to perceived crisis.
For many, challenges early in their life conditioned and toughened them so they can still puzzle through a new challenge. For those of more fortunate circumstances and few life challenges, the experiences of failing relatives is terrifying and upsetting. “But Dad has always……” (But Dad can’t any more), or “We might lose all……” (Yes, life has no guarantees to preserve inheritance) or “Why us? (Why not?)
But those with faith in the Lord rise up as on eagle wings, sometimes shedding tears, but smiling internally and eternally as they know the future. Those clients are more resilient, understanding, and survive by keeping things in biblical perspective. If one trait were used to describe these clients, it is “Thankful” in all things. Nothing guarantees that we will not have trials or that our children will inherit what we have, but if we are thankful for all we receive, there is a special joy and contentment that you have to see to believe.
In this blessed Christmas season, my hope is that you will be thankful for all, as I am thankful for all of you.
I regularly meet with sons, daughters, and spouses of an elder client who is failing. These close relatives often attempt to be the “care giver” for the failing elder, fulfilling their wish to remain at home.
While that is a laudable goal and one that many share, I always caution the caregiver to be very careful about burnout from trying to do too much, both mentally and physically. Care giving for a failing elder is stressful and when it is an around-the-clock obligation, the health of the caregiver is sometimes at risk.
Solutions are very family specific, depending upon who is available. One important theme is for a caregiver to be self-forgiving. I like the myths that my friends at Right at Home, a home health agency recently listed. Each of these (with my paraphrasing) is not true:
• I need to be perfect – no;
• I should only have positive thoughts about what I am doing – no;
• I shouldn’t talk about what I’m experiencing – no;
• I shouldn’t let others know about what is going on – no;
• My needs need to take a back seat to the services I am providing –no;
• Other caregivers are better at this than me and have a better attitude –no;
• I should do it all myself – no.
Caregivers – protect yourself. Dark, cold winter days will increase the chance for depression. Get some relief and thank you for what you do.
If you’re like me, you want to leave an inheritance for your children. But giving outright ownership of our assets to the kids could put everything you’ve worked so hard to leave behind at risk. Why? Let me give you five reasons and then show you the way to protect your kids’ inheritance for many, many generations.
1. Your Child’s Future Divorce
Approximately forty-two percent (42%) of our children will divorce during their lifetime. In most divorces property is divided evenly. So if you have a married child, or a child who will get married in the future, and you leave them an inheritance, and they later divorce, as much as half of their inheritance could go to their ex-spouse. You aren’t working as hard as you are to support your child’s future ex-spouse, right? Good news, there is an alternative!
2. Extreme Debt/Bankruptcy
Your child may incur such extreme debt that the only possible relief will come through bankruptcy. Possible causes of such debt are a business venture gone bad or a health event, such as addiction, mental illness, accident, or disease that results in either a temporary or permanent inability to work in combination with staggering medical bills. Bankruptcy does happen to good people, and you can ensure that the inheritance you leave behind will never be at risk due to a mistake or health issue.
Unintended neglect that injures someone’s person or property could wipe out an inheritance you leave your children. For example, in a 2009 case in Florida, the defendants thought they were doing the neighbors’ son an act of kindness by allowing him the “fun” of driving the four wheeler around the family property. Apparently, they didn’t tell the young man about the barb wire on the property. Their good intended neglect, resulting in the decapitation of their neighbor’s son, was not seen as good by the parents or the court, who ordered the $20 million judgment. In sum, good intended, but neglectful behavior on the part of your children could wipe out any inheritance you leave them.
I have many clients who tell me they do not trust their children to manage money. This could mean that their children are spendthrifts, unwise investors, or easily manipulated out of the money. And, the statistics support this.
According to Prof. Jay L. Zagorsky of Ohio State University, 18.7 % of individuals who inherit more than $100,000 will spend or lose the entire inheritance. On average individual who inherit lose 50% of the money. It’s quite likely that if that inheritance was left in a different way those numbers would greatly improve. I’ll share more with you about that below.
5. Lost Work Ethic:
My father once said, “Some people can’t handle prosperity.” He was right.
For example, Thomas Stanley and William Danko in their book, The Millionaire Next Door, uncovered research showing that children who received an inheritance were worth four-fifths less than others in their same profession who didn’t. Vic Preisser, of the Institute for Preparing Heirs, says that unprepared children who inherit money are susceptible to excessive spending, identity loss, and guilt over receiving money they didn’t earn. Preisser says, “In a year to 18 months, everything falls apart — marriage, finances — and if there is a drug problem it becomes worse.” Thus leaving an outright inheritance to our kids, may do harm instead of good. But there is an alternative!
As we can see, an outright inheritance is NOT the best answer for your kids.
Our office can assist you or your family in what to do instead.
“Aging in Place” has become a preference I often hear from clients. It is usually shorthand for a fear of spending last days in an institution like a nursing home.
The reality, as shown by joint study done by an investment firm and AgeWave, shows many seniors have already moved or planned to move to a place they will own – a newer home with modern appliance, no steps, and much less maintenance, such as a condominium. And why are they moving? As reported by Caring Right At Home, a major supplier of home health care, many move to be closer to family (29%), reducing home expenses (26%) and because of changes in their health (17%).
It is not just “downsizing” but what I call “right sizing”, as people realize the large house with stairs and a lawn to maintain isn’t necessary after the kids have left. Because of modern medicine, we are living longer and tend to be more active – not just my grandparents sitting on the porch in a rocking chair. Why spend the time maintaining a home?
Regardless of location, the majority of seniors want long-term care in their home for as long as they are able, so watch for the continued growth of the home care agency. Since, in Ohio, licensing is not required, check out carefully the experience and customer satisfaction stats for any potential caregiver, or see us about making a family member that designated person. Live until you die!
Today, we mark the onset of a New Year. While we all get used to writing or typing 2015 and not 2014, this day presents us a fresh marker to number the days in our lives. We are stewards of our lessons going forward. One lesson I take from 2014, and all the years prior, is that failure is an inside job. In an era where no one takes personal responsibility for their actions, I have concluded that I am the best person to sell Me a bad idea. When a friend convinced me to play dodgeball in front of one of our large garage windows as a junior higher, I said, “Self, that is a great idea! You will have a lot of fun. Now where’s the ball?” You get the picture, and so you have been your best salesperson for many of those significant decisions in life.
This past year our law firm has helped bridge poor planning by “do-it-yourselfers” and peace for their families. In those instances, the planners may have received their bad planning ideas from the internet, a co-worker, a less than persnickety uncle, or a bank teller. However, the individual is the one who ultimately approved and took confidence in their bad idea.
In the spirit of a fresh start, let’s plan with a purpose and be ever leery of those bad ideas. If you need solid, well-constructed estate planning, contact our office. I have heard it said that “Ninety percent of all those who fail are not actually defeated. They simply quit.” You see, it is an inside job. Let 2015 be a year where you have been intentional in meeting goals for your marriage, your children, grandchildren, business, church, synagogue or work. Have a great year!
Many seniors come to us for advice as they see their friends going into long-term custodial facilities and spending their life savings for care. They want to leave their estate to their children. Frequently, they have heard on the street that they should give their house to the kids now so it won’t count for Medicaid. WRONG! –generally.
In husband and wife situations, the marital home has protections that are lost if you give it to children. The structure of Medicaid is to protect a “community spouse” by not taking the home as long as the community spouse owns and lives there. In addition, the marital home is an investment that can be improved, using liquid assets that otherwise might be used for care of an institutionalized spouse and, with the step-up in basis on the death of the community spouse, results in a potentially greater transfer of value to the surviving children.
Another consideration is that transfer to the kids exposes the house to their creditors or their devious, unfaithful spouse in a divorce. You could end up on the street. There are several techniques that accomplish the goal of saving assets for children that don’t expose you to such risk.
It’s complicated. Come talk to us.
“Are you kidding me?”
While I operate in a world of instant communication by cell phone, seniors often forgets to charge theirs or take it with them. I have hundreds of cell phone calls – they may go a month and not use it. I have three different email mailboxes and many folders to sort my email – they still buy stamps and write letters. So should we interfere with our senior relatives and introduce them to modern communication. YES – but gently.
We are in an information age – one where the information resources almost overwhelm you, but one where the right tools are necessary for access. Take Medicare supplemental insurance (please!). My parents spent two weeks of their winter visit with my sister on the Internet – comparing prices and coverage. The truth is my sister spent two weeks on the Internet and translated screens, diagrams, and tables into digestible bites for my parents, so they could make a good decision on insurance coverage. My mother’s doctor recently suggested she look at some information on the Internet about her new prescription. She decided to take it on faith, not knowledge.
My point: there is so much that a senior citizen needs to know or might find helpful to know that is conveniently accessible on the Internet. The instant communication of email might alleviate the boredom of shut-in seniors. While it is fine for those of us who are computer literate to find the information for our seniors, they are the ones with the time available to search. SO…… gently suggest that their grandson or granddaughter would like to show them how to use a computer. When they find out it won’t blow up when they hit the wrong key and most mistakes are instantly correctable, you may have given them a valuable pipeline to information on health, estate management, and family connection they never thought possible.
Want an example? Have them go to our websites, shlawlondon.com or shlawspfld.com or Dustin’s website and sign up for our free monthly newsletter on a variety of elder issues. Remember it’s free and, I think, helpful and sometimes entertaining.